Retrospective study of HTLV-1/HTLV-2-related antibody reactivity in U.S. drug abusers

Cover of: Retrospective study of HTLV-1/HTLV-2-related antibody reactivity in U.S. drug abusers |

Published by National Cancer Institute, Office of Cancer Communications in [Bethesda, Md.?] .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • HIV (Viruses) -- Transmission,
  • AIDS (Disease) -- Transmission

Edition Notes

Book details

StatementCarl Saxinger ... [et al.]
SeriesUpdate, Update (Bethesda, Md.)
ContributionsSaxinger, Carl, National Cancer Institute (U.S.). Office of Cancer Communications
The Physical Object
Pagination3, [1] p. ;
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL14286541M

Download Retrospective study of HTLV-1/HTLV-2-related antibody reactivity in U.S. drug abusers

The HTLV-I/II Antibody test detects antibodies to the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), a retrovirus, and differentiates between the two types of HTLV.

The presence of antibodies to HTLV-I or HTLV-II indicates that a person is infected with the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus. HTLV infects white blood cells, a major part of the immune : $ The HTLV 1&2 Abs test looks for antibodies to both types but does not differentiate.

An estimated million people worldwide suffer from HTLV infections. HTLV is typically spread through sexual contact and exposure to infected blood, especially through intravenous drug use.

These studies were supported in part by Grant RO1-CA from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health to D.Z.-F. M.M. was supported by Grant DA from the National Institutes on Drug Abuse, Center for AIDS Research Grant 1P30AI from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and General Clinical Cited by:   Five out of 24 (%) HIV-1 positive subjects had antibodies to HTLV-1–2 as well.

Sera from another group of 58 syphilitic patients (38 males and 20 females in the Anti-Venereal Disease Department), seronegative for HIV-1 and HIV-2, who denied both i.v. drug abuse and blood transfusion, were investigated in the same by: 2.

Since it is known that approx. 1 % of the entire population of Japan has anti-HTLV-I antibody [22, 23], the % seropositivity in the present study’s SS patients is thought to be higher than that of the Japanese general population. In this regard, we should emphasize that the enrolled patients in this study are considerably different from Cited by: 8.

Results: A positive reaction was found in 3 of 25 cases. These biopsies corresponded to a case of Mycosis Fungoides, a case of CD30 (-) T-cell lymphoma and a case of lymphomatoid papulosis. HTLVL: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) are closely related exogenous human retroviruses.

HTLV-I was first isolated in from a patient with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, while HTLV-II was identified from a patient with hairy cell leukemia in HTLV-I infection is endemic in southwestern Japan, the Caribbean basin, Melanesia, and parts of Africa, where.

Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection is associated with certain rare diseases of T lymphocytes (T-cells), a type of white blood cell that is an important part of the body's immune test detects an HTLV infection in order to help identify the virus as the underlying cause of an individual's leukemia, lymphoma, rare nervous system disorder, chronic pulmonary infection, uveitis.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is etiologically associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL); tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), a demyelinating neurological disorder; and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). Two types of HTLV testing are available - antibody and molecular testing.

A report from the Lymphoma Study Group (). Br J Haematol. Nov. 79(3) Wolfe ND, Heneine W, Carr JK, Garcia AD, Shanmugam V, Tamoufe U. Emergence of unique primate T-lymphotropic viruses among central African bushmeat hunters.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May (22) HTLV (human T-lymphotropic virus) can be discovered through a blood test when specific rare diseases are present that affect the white blood cells that are a foundational component of the human immune response.

This virus affects the t-cells and when present, is often an underlying cause of lymphoma, leukemia, or other nervous system disorders. Medical. Previous studies of HTLV-I/II WB seroindeterminate status have focused on the detection of HTLV-I genes or antibody reactivity by ELISA or WB [11, 13, 15, 16, 20, 31, 33].

In the present study, we extended previous observations and examined T cell responses in HTLV-I/II WB seroindeterminate patients with the HLA-A* haplotype.

available U.S. studies, which looked primarily at blood donors and injection drug users and took age, sex, and estimates of worldwide prevalence rates into consideration (Gessain and Cassar ).

Retrospective study of HTLV-1/HTLV-2-related antibody reactivity in U.S. drug abusers book de-tailed study of HTLV-1 prevalence in the United States conducted from to reported a seroprevalence of % ( cases. Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first discovered human retrovirus and the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLVassociated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

Shortly after the discovery of HTLV-1, human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 (HTLV-2) was isolated from a patient with hairy cell leukemia.

Despite possession of similar structural features to. In one study of married couples in Japan, the efficiency of sexual transmission from males to females was estimated to be % over a year period, compared with less than 1% from females to males (25).

In another study, the presence of antibody to tax in the male partner was associated with sexual transmission to the female partner (26). Positive results for HTLV-II antibodies indicate the confirmed presence of HTLV-II IgG antibodies in serum, based on 2 visible antibody bands that include gpI/-II band, or 3 or more bands, and the gpII band intensity is a) greater than the gpI band intensity and b) equal or greater than the sum of the gpI and pI band intensity.

The transmission of HIV (the virus responsible for AIDS) and HTLV-Type I infection are similar. Infection can occur by sexual contact with an infected individual, through sharing of contaminated needles and syringes by intravenous drug users, or as the result of a transfusion of contaminated blood.

PDF | Serum specimens obtained from a nationwide sample of parenteral drug abusers (PDAs) during the period had previously been screened for | Find, read and cite all the research you.

In a recent study of 39, random blood donors in eight U.S. cities, 10 (%) were found to have antibodies against HTLV-I (1)[Williams AE, Fang CT, Slamon DJ, et. HTLV DNA, which is virus incorporated in the cell DNA, can be detected through PCR testing.

PCR stands for polymerase chain reaction. This test looks directly for HTLV proviral DNA in the blood cells. This reports the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) which carry the virus. ried out a nationwide study ofATLA-Ab in blood donors aged 40 to 64 years in Japan, with the immunofluorescence (IF) study using theMT-I cell line.

The discordance between IF study and EIA test was reported as % Statistical analysis was done using the X2 test, Student's t test, and Spearman's rank correlation test at the confidence level.

Sowaksky, You have fully explained what HTLV-I is, But on my recent HIV test it states "A non-Reactive result indicates that HIV-I (HTLV-III) antibodies have not been found in this patients specim. Some Native American Indian populations have infection rates as high as 13%.

Those most likely to be infected with HTLV-I have immigrated to the U.S. from a country where HTLV-1 infection is prevalent, are children of such immigrants, are IV drug users, or are sex workers. A study appearing in the in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences gives new clues into how cancers like leukemia form from the retrovirus HTLV-1, as well as insights into the possible.

However, in a study of 39, random blood donors in eight U.S. cities, 10 (%) were seropositive for HTLV-I (12). Transmission Transmission of HTLV-I infection by blood transfusion is well documented in Japan, with a seroconversion rate of 63% in recipients of the cellular components of contaminated units (whole blood, red blood cells, and.

The human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) is a member of the family of Retroviridae, consisting of enveloped double stranded RNA viruses and genetically not related to HIV1&2; however, they have similar routes of transmission and can have extremely long.

To date, long-term intravenous drug users studied at regional European centers of illicit drug use have had a high number of LAV/HTLV-III infections.

Among patients remanded by court or referred from prison to a special clinic in northern Germany for young delinquent drug abusers, 26 (17%) of IV drug abusers were HTLV-III seropositive. Assay is an enzyme immunoassay for the qualitative detection of antibody to HIV-1, Groups M and O, and/or HIV-2 in human serum and plasma.

Sample Requirements Living Donor: Serum or Plasma (EDTA, sodium and lithium heparin, sodium citrate, ACD, CPD, CPDA-1). HTLV I/II Antibody, Confirmatory Assay - HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. HTLV-II is less common and is associated with neoplasias of the CD8 lymphocytes.

Blood donor screening began in Line Immunoassay (LIA) is used for confirmation of Antibody testing. Once the virus enters the body, it remains in it (dormant or active). Up until now, there is no treatment that can cure HTLV.

In some cases, the virus can turn into an acute or chronic illness. A study showed that HTLV-2 can also lead to premature death, possibly due to myelopathy. The third member of the human T-cell leukemia (lymphotrophic) retrovirus family (HTLV-III) is a newly discovered retrovirus that has been closely associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

In our application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HTLV-III antibodies. To define the antibody profile of early seroconversion in infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), consecutive serum samples from 10 subjects presumed to have seroconverted on the basis of the particle agglutination test were studied by three enzyme immunoassays and two confirmatory tests (radioimmunoprecipitation and western blot).

3 samples positive and 1 sample. The prevalence of HTLV infection in the U.S. population is not known. But among volunteer whole blood donors, several studies have shown a seroprevalence of about % (24,25) and among a group of U.S. paid plasma donors, a rate as high as %. What is HTLV and how is it distributed in the world.

HTLV is a virus that infects humans and persists in the body for life. The virus infects the T-lymphocytes of the human host. T-lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell. Following infection there are three differing events, each of which contribute to the persistence of the virus in the host: 1) the virus spreads from the infected cell to.

Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of Adult-T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL). Therapeutic options for ATL patients are very limited and in aggressive forms of the disease survival rate is only 10% to 30% with conventional chemotherapies and bone marrow transplantation.

HTLVI: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) are closely related exogenous human retroviruses. HTLV-I was first isolated in from a patient with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, while HTLV-II was identified from a patient with hairy cell leukemia in HTLV-I infection is endemic in southwestern Japan, Caribbean basin, Melanesia, and parts of Africa, where.

What is HTLV-2. HTLV stands for Human T cell Leukemia Virus. It is a retrovirus that infects a type of white blood cell called a T-cell or T-lymphocyte. HTLV-2 infection is mostly seen in Native American's and people from Western Africa.

The exact number of people infected in the UK is not known but is much less than the number infected with HTLV   HTLV-1 is widely disseminated and between 5 and 10 million people worldwide are estimated to be s of HTLV-1 prevalence among blood donors underestimate prevalence in the general population but are still useful in comparing between nations ().Endemic clusters of HTLV-1 seropositivity or infection are present in southern Japan, the islands of the Ryukyu Chain (including.

HTLV-1 is an abbreviation for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, also called human T-cell leukemia type 1, a virus that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis, and as a virus cancer link for leukemia (see adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma).HTLV-1 has six reported subtypes (subtypes A to F).

The great majority of infections are caused by the. HTLV-1 infection is currently restricted to endemic areas. To define the prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in patients living in Italy, we first carried out a retrospective serological analysis in a group of people originating from African countries referred to our hospital from January to February We subsequently applied a real time PCR on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type 1, is a retrovirus of the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases including very aggressive adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, uveitis, Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection and.

Background. Haemophilus influenzae infection is more common in adults with HIV than in the general population, but the annual incidence remains relatively low at 41/, adults with HIV. [] Only about one-third of cases of invasive H. influenzae involve type b, which is the type in the currently licensed vaccines.

Multiple identifiable subtypes of H. influenzae and other unidentifiable.Nov 12 - Study highlights strategies to streamline phase 3 New Drug Trials Snapshots Summary Report Nov 9 - Report summarizes global participation in clinical trials for new drug approvals

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